美国历届总统简介:第1任总统 乔治华盛顿

时间:2020-08-13 12:49:40
George Washington was the first President of the USA and is consistently voted as one its top five leaders. He was born in 1732 in Virginia. His family were well off and owned a plantation. Growing up, he learned the morals, manners, and knowledge necessary for an 18th-century Virginia gentleman. He was greatly interested in two things while he grew up: military arts and western expansion.

乔治·华盛顿是美国的第一届总统,同时也是美国的五大领袖之一。他于1732年出生在弗吉尼亚州一户拥有种植园的富裕家庭。随着年龄的增长,他学会了18世纪弗吉尼亚绅士的道德、礼貌、以及学识。在他的成长中,他对两件事特别感兴趣:军事艺术和西方殖民扩张。

In 1754, at the age of 22, he became a lieutenant colonel in the Army. He fought in the first skirmishes of what grew into the French and Indian War. The following year he escaped injury in battle although four bullets ripped his coat and two horses were shot from under him. His military experience taught him valuable lessons in leadership he would use later in his political life.

1754年,22岁的华盛顿成为了美国陆军中校。他参加了法国和印度之战的导火线。在接下来的一年里,尽管4颗子弹穿过他的上衣、2匹坐下的战马被子弹打死,而他却安然无恙。从军给了他领导方面的宝贵经验,这让他在日后的政治生涯中受益匪浅。

From 1759 to the outbreak of the American Revolution, Washington managed his lands. He married Martha Dandridge Custis and devoted himself to farming life. However, he felt exploited by British merchants and British regulations. In 1775, he took command of his ill-trained troops and embarked upon a war that was to last six grueling years. He forced the surrender of the British at Yorktown in 1781.

1759年至美国独立战争爆发期间,华盛顿经营着自己的农场。他与玛莎·丹德里奇·柯蒂斯结为了夫妇,并全身心投入到农耕生活中。然而,他体会到了英国商人及英国制度的剥削。1775年,他带领一支缺乏训练的队伍开始了长达6年的艰苦战役。1781年,他迫使英国人在约克镇投降。

Washington entered politics and became a prime mover in the steps leading to creating the Constitution in 1787. After the new Constitution was ratified, the Electoral College unanimously elected him as the USA's first President. Washington avoided further wars and promoted the importance of federal power. He died in 1799 and was hailed as "first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen".

1787年,华盛顿进入政坛,并成为创建美国宪法的主要发起人。新宪法获批后,总统选举团推选华盛顿为美国的第一任总统。此后,华盛顿在避免战争的同时,加强联邦政府的权力。1799年,华盛顿逝世。他被誉为“战争中的第一人、和平第一人、国人心中的第一人。”